27 Nov 2015

Chemical Reactions (Ch 1)

Important Terms
Important Questions solved (CBSE)

Important Terms

  • Chemical reaction
Reactants reacts to form products

  • Chemical equation
A chemical equation represents a chemical reaction with their respective chemical formulas.

  • Skeletal Chemical Equation
A simple chemical equation which represents symbols of compounds or elements of reactants and products taking part in a chemical reaction

  • Balanced Chemical Equation
A Balanced Chemical Equation is the one in which the total number of atoms of each elements of the reactants is equal to the total number of atoms of reacted products

  • Representation of symbols of various physical states
Solids  (s)
Liquid  (l)
Gases  (g)
Aqueous (aq) {NOTE: Aqueous is not same as liquid}

Writing Chemical Equations 

1. In a chemical reaction, the reactants are written on the left hand side and the products on the right hand side of the equation.

2. An arrow (→) pointing towards the products is inserted between the reactants and the products. It also represents the direction of the reaction.

3. A single arrow (→) indicates the direction in which the reaction proceeds.

4. A double arrow ( ) indicates a reversible reaction, i.e. the products recombine to form the reactants.

5. A plus sign (+) is inserted between two or more reactants or products formed.

6. If reactions are carried out under specific conditions of temperature, pressure, catalyst etc., then these conditions are mentioned on the arrow.

7. The chemical equation can be made more informative by mentioning the physical states of the reactants and products.

8. If gas is liberated as a product then it is represented by an arrow pointing upwards (↑). If the product formed is in the form of a precipitate, it is represented by an arrow pointing downwards (↓). Balancing the Chemical Equations

9. In a balanced chemical equation, the total number of atoms of each element of the reactants on the left hand side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms of the products formed on the right hand side of the equation.

10. The total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products or the number of atoms of each element before the reaction and after the reaction is equal.

Types Of  Reaction

Combination Reaction
When two or more substances combine to form a single product, the reaction is known as a combination
For example:
In the laboratory, iron sulphide is prepared by mixing iron and sulphur.
Fe(s) + S(s)  FeS(s)
⇒ Endothermic Reaction: The reactions accompanied by the absorption of heat are called
endothermic reactions.
⇒ Exothermic Reaction:
The reactions accompanied by the evolution of heat are called endothermic

Decomposition Reaction
A chemical reaction in which a single compound splits into two or more simple substances is called a
decomposition reaction.
For example:
When mercuric oxide is heated in a crucible, the orange-red powder begins to darken and a silver mirror
begins to deposit on the cooler parts of the crucible.
2HgO(s)   →    2Hg(s) + O2 ↑
Mercuric oxide Mercury Oxygen

Displacement Reaction
Reactions in which the more reactive element displaces the less reactive element from its compound are called displacement reactions.
For example:
Zinc displaces copper in copper sulphate to form zinc sulphate.
Zn(s) + CuSO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu(s)
Zinc Copper sulphate  Zinc sulphate Copper

Double Displacement Reaction
Reactions in which ions of the reactants exchange places to form two new compounds, are called double displacement reactions.
For example:
Sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form sodium chloride and water.
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Redox Reaction
The chemical reaction in which oxidation and reduction takes place simultaneously is known as a redox reaction.

Oxidation Reactions
Reactions which involve the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen are called oxidation reactions.
For example:
C(s) + 2H2 (g)  CH4 (g)

Reduction Reactions
Chemical reactions in which the reactants gain hydrogen are reduction reactions.
For example:
 Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2↑
Ferric oxide Carbon monoxide Iron Carbon dioxide

The slow process of decay and destruction of metals due to the action of air, moisture or acids is called corrosion.
For example:
Iron combines with oxygen present in the air, in the presence of water, to form a red-brown flaky
substance called rust. This process is commonly called the rusting of iron.
The chemical formula of rust is Fe2O3. x H2O.

Prevention of Corrosion

Corrosion damages buildings, bridges, ships, automobiles and other articles made of iron. Hence,
prevention of corrosion is necessary. This will not only save money but can also prevent the
occurrence of accidents.

It can be prevented by processes like galvanising and electroplating with other metals.

Oils and fats react with oxygen and get oxidised or turn rancid. This process is called rancidity.
Rancidity can be prevented by keeping food in air tight containers or by using antioxidants.
Antioxidants are used to prevent oxidation of food containing fats and oils.
Storage of food in air tight containers also decelerates oxidation.

Important Questions (CBSE)

Important questions will be published here soon.
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1 Jan 2015

Which Stream To Choose After 10th In 2015 | Science, Commerce, Arts or any Other?

Students are breaking the rule nowadays and also going for some diploma courses. These courses are proved to be job guaranteed and are packed with handsome salary. On the other hand, the unemployment of number of graduates and post grads is huge.

10th standard is the starting and the most crucial point in the life of a student. After 10th a student’s life goes for a big change.  It is now that he takes up subjects of his choice and puts focused efforts for better career prospects in future. This is a time when most of the students get confused too much and takes a decision which he starts to dislike later. Students often find it difficult to decide which path they should choose and go. The question which stands in front of students are:
  • What actually a Stream is?
  • Which stream should I choose after 10th?     
  • Do I need to take competitive coaching After 10th  ? Is this the right time or its little bit earlier?   
  • Should I take state board or CBSE board or ICSE after 10th?  
  • Is Private Schools are better or should I go for government school? 
  • Should I go for diploma or other courses or complete schooling After 10th?
Choosing a career in a particular stream or profession right at this point of time has a long lasting impact on a student's future. It is very important for any student to choose carefully from various options available to him/her in which he/she is interested. In order to achieve success, one has to select the path which they like to walk on. Good judgment and right kind of aptitude when coupled with guidance in the right direction to pick up a definite stream helps one in choosing the right career option.
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CBSE 10th Improvement Exam Rules and Regulation (EIOP) 2014-2015


Improvement of Performance (IOP)

Update :
10th improvementWith an objective to provide a chance to students who could not score up to their expectations or having compartment in the Class 10 board examination, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is all set to hold an Improvement of Performance Examination from July 16-23.
The results of the Class 10 board were declared by the CBSE on May 30.

EIOP stands for Eligible for Improvement Of Performance.

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has discontinued the practice of declaring ‘Compartment’ or ‘Fail’.
Further, it has also been informed that candidates who have obtained Grade ‘E1′ or ‘E2′ are required to improve their performance in one attempt.
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FAQ's About CBSE Improvement 2014-2015


Before starting this CBSE FAQ's section i suggest you to also consider CBSE Improvement Rules and Regulation 2015 or CBSE Improvement Admit Card, which are related to this post.

#1.Is improvement exam mark sheet is valid in all states?
Ans. Yes, The mark-sheet will be valid in all states of India but keep one thing in mind you have to choose the all India type i.e. AISSCE.

#2.How many times can a candidate appear for Improvement examination?
Ans. For improvement examination only one chance in the succeeding year is permitted.

#3.Is a student required to appear in all subjects in improvement examination?
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30 Dec 2014

CBSE 12th Improvement Exam Rules and Regulation | 2014-15


As you should already be knowing that this is one of the most popular, most searched and an evergreen post on this blog and on WWW as well.
I suggest you to visit CBSE Improvement FAQ'S to clear any more doubt or you may also want to know about Admit Cards or may be about CBSE 10th Improvement Rules 2015

CBSE Improvement Exam takes place succeeding year when you give class 12th board exams. The exam is same as regular board exams and you get a whole year to prepare for the improvement exam.

ABOUT CBSE 12th Board Improvement Exam

You can appear for improvement exam for any one or all of the passing subjects and not in the subjects in which you have been declared fail .
A candidate appearing for improvement exam in one or more subjects can not appear for additional subject simultaneously.
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